What were some reasons that leaders converted to Protestantism.  (Think about Henry VIII, and German Princes in the Holy Roman Empire.)

·         Reasons: Belief or Power

·         German Princes

o   Believed in Luther’s teachings

o   Gave them control over the church and state of their fief

o   Protected them from excommunication and other Church threats

o   Helped them justify going to war with the Holy Roman Emperor to get more power

·         Henry VIII

o   Wants a son

o   Thinks he offended God by marrying his brother’s widow

o   Pope refused to annul (cancel) his marriage

o   Argues Pope is defying God

o   Breaks away from Catholic Church to gain annulment, also more money (seizes church land) also more power (no Pope to tell him what to do)

Why did the religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics lead to war?

·         Theological Differences (Religious beliefs)

o   Each group accuses the other of dooming people to HELL!!!

·         Politics (Power)

o   Leaders claim divine right to rule which was supported by
the Church (Good for Monarchs)

§  Use of excommunication to keep Nobles in line

§  Use of excom- to keep Monarchs in line…sometimes

o   Powerful “Princes” who converted to Protestantism were no
longer bound by the rules of the Church, couldn’t be excom.
Could choose or dismiss priests/clergy

o   Religious struggle = Power Struggle

Describe the beliefs of Medieval Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, and Anglicans, for each of the following categories:

·         Salvation (How people get into Heaven)

o   MC: 7 Sacraments

o   L: Faith Alone

o   C: Predestination

o   A: Mix of Sacraments and Faith and…whatever the King/Queen at the time says

·         Views on the Bible (Who should read it? Why is it important? Etc.)

o   MC: Only Latin Bibles, only clergy should read them.  Pope’s version is final, Bible + Church Teaching = how to be a Christian.

o   L: Only true source of religious info. Must read to get into Heaven.  Any language is O.K.!, Job of a priest is to HELP you read the Bible on your own.

o   C: Bible must be read, although reading it doesn’t get you into Heaven (because nothing can) NOT reading is a SIGN you are predestined to go to Hell.

o   A: Read it in English (duh), K.J.V. used alongside the Book of Common Prayer can be read  by anyone, BUT the interpretation of the King and the Archbishop of Canterbury is the “correct “ interpretation.

·         Church Ceremonies (Which to use?  Why perform them?)

o   MC: 7 Sacraments get rid of sins, which gets you out of purgatory faster and into heaven faster.

o   L: Baptism and Communion are done as a sign of faith.  Doing them is a nice “thank you” to God.

o   C: Baptism and Communion, are done because a) it’s the LAW, b) if you don’t do them, it’s a sign that you are going to Hell.  c) It says to do them in the Bible, so just do them because.

o   A: Baptism, Communion, and others, sort of. Upper Church vs. Lower Church.  All seven sacraments are performed, but not all of them are called sacraments by all people.  BUT sacraments help you get into heaven by working off sins.

·         Other Important/Unique Beliefs

o   MC: Sacraments get you into heaven,
Pope is in charge, faith is nice. You don’t need to know what the
Bible says, except for what the priest tells you, really, you’ll only
misunderstand it anyway, you stupid peasant.

o   L: Faith is a gift from God, any who accept it can go to Heaven.  Faith comes in part from reading the Bible and doing the sacraments.

o   C: Predestination – God decided who is going where (heaven or hell)

o   A: Mix of Calvinism and Catholicism

§  Ceremonies get you into Heaven

§  Also only faith does

§  …Because the King/Queen said so

§  Also you can get divorced (duh)

How did the Protestant Reformation change the way people viewed themselves, their government, society, and the world around them?

Before the Reformation:

·         There is only one religion

·         There is no freedom of religion…but nobody even understands what that would mean.

·         Church backs up the Feudal Hierarchy, but enforces its beliefs through Excommunication

·         Very few people ever question the reality or authority of church teachings

·         Religion = Science (or that’s how they thought about it)

After the Reformation

·         Church and State become separate concepts (but still are linked)

·         People “have” a religion

·         Having a religious identity will lead to people thinking about themselves
as “national” groups later on

Religious conflicts call into question the meaning of life, death, and salvation