·         Renaissance

o   Renaissance – “Rebirth” Time period at the beginning of the “Modern” Era where there was a rebirth of learning/culture/art

o   Humanism – Renaissance Philosophy.  Humanists believed that
people could change their destiny (e.g., if you were born a farmer, you did not need to be a farmer forever).  They also believed that secular activities could be valuable.

·         Protestant Reformation

o   Protestant – Member of a Christian denomination* that broke away from the R. C. C. over issues like Church corruption during the Reformation (e.g. Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, etc.)

o   Catholic – Christians who belong to the Roman Catholic Church (The oldest surviving Christian denomination)

o   *Denomination – “Branch” of Christianity.

o   Indulgence – Buying forgiveness from sin (time off purgatory)

o   Simony – Buying/selling of church positions (and possessions)

o   Salvation – Getting into heaven

o   Christian Humanism – People should be active about their faith/practice. Included reading the Bible and Inward piety.

o   Corruption – Using/abusing your authority for personal gain.

o   Vernacular – “Everyday Language” local language; not Latin.

o   Secular – Not having to do with religion

o   Sacrament

o   Faith

o   Predestination – God decided your fate after death prior to your birth; this cannot be changed.

o   Pope

o   *Piety – Faith, devotion, “sticking” to your religion

o   Lutheran – Protestant who belongs to the Church founded by Martin Luther; beliefs include salvation by faith alone, and personal reading and interpretation of the Bible.

o   Calvinist

o   Anglican

·         Exploration

o   Lateen – Triangle shaped sail, used to sail against the wind.

o   Carrack – Type of sailboat used to get to the Americas (bigger)

o   Caravel – Type of sailboat used to get to the Americas (smaller)

o   Encomienda – Spanish forced labor camp using native laborers (especially in the Caribbean.)

o   Glory

o   Conquistador

o   Circumnavigation – Sail around the world

o   Astrolabe – Astronomical device used to aid in navigation through the use of the sun and the stars.

o   Compass

·         Early North American Civilizations

o   Ayllu – Inca extended family unit (like a clan).  Work, labor taxes, and living arrangements were all organized by Ayllu

o   Sapa Inca

o   Terrace – Inca farming on hills/mountain sides (look kind of like stairs)

o   Chinampa – Floating Aztec Garden

o   Slash-and-Burn

o   Polytheism

o   Tribute

·         Enlightenment

o   Philosophe – French word for “Philosopher;” used to describe philosophers (thinkers) during the Enlightenment.

o   General Will – Idea that the opinion of the majority of
people should guide the government/country.

o   Natural Law – Idea that people have certain rights (like Life,
Liberty, and Property) that can only be taken away with good
cause as a result of something like a crime.

o   Separation of Powers – Division of government power into
different “branches” such as Executive, Legislative and Judicial.

o   Checks and Balances – Powers that certain branches of government have to counter the powers of the other branches (e.g. veto power of the Exec. Checks the legislative power of Congress)

o   Social Contract

o   Leviathan – Hobbes’ idea of an Absolute Monarch who ruled with the permission of the people (social contract).  Used his absolute power for the good of his people …not clear if this has ever happened.

·         English Civil Wars

o   Parliament – Law making group of the United Kingdom (Britain).  Originally an advisory group of Nobles and Commoners.  Parliament slowly gained power to control taxation and even make laws.  Parliament got power from the King as the King was forced to ask their permission to raise taxes. Often fought with the King (and killed one King during the English Civil Wars.)

o   Divine Right of Kings – Idea that all government power comes from God and is granted to the King (by birth…sort of.)  Often correlated with Absolutism, but not always.

o   Constitutional Monarchy – Type of government where the King shares power with a legislative or advisory group (like a Parliament.) 

o   Magna Carta – “Great Charter” document that defined limits on the King’s authority. (1st Western document to do so) Part of the semi-official constitution of Britain.

·         French Revolution

o   Estate

o   Estates General – Representative body with members from each of the three estates; suggested or approved laws in partnership with the King.

o   Bourgeoisie

o   Aristocrat/Aristocracy

o   Clergy

o   Commoner

o    Absolutism – Monarch has total legal power over his country

o   Tyrant/Tyranny

·         Industrial Revolution

o   Cottage Industry

o   Industrial/ Industrialization – Related to manufacturing, or replacing traditional production with factories.

o   Mechanize – Replace people with machines (esp. for manufacturing)

o   Urbanization

Textile – Cloth (usually for clothing)